Verbs in Brazilian Portuguese

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  Verbs in Brazilian Portuguese
                                                 –
                                                 Verbos em Português do Brasil
       
 
falar
to speak
 
 
 
pronouns
eu
você, ele, ela
nós
vocês, eles, elas
       
Present
falo
I speak
 
 
 
ar er ir
o
a e e
_mos
am em em
       
Past
falei
I spoke
 
 
 
ar er ir
ei i i
ou eu iu
_mos
_ram
       
Imperfect
falava
I used to speak
I would speak *1
I was speaking
I spoke
ar er ir
ava ia
ava ia
ávamos íamos
avam iam
       
Conditional
falaria
I would speak
*2
 
 
ar er ir
ia
ia
íamos
iam
       
Future
falarei
I will speak
*3
 
 
ar er ir
ei
á
emos
ão
       
Present/Past
Participles

estou falando
I am speaking
tenho falado
I have spoken
ar er ir
 
_ndo
ado ido
 
  use the above with verb
                                                 stem + ending,
                                                 
(where the underscore is a, e, or i)
infinitive + ending stem + ending


  A sample regular verb
falar
                              
to speak
 
 
falo
                              
fala
falamos
falam
falei
                              
falou
falamos
falaram
falava
                              
falava
falávamos
falavam
falaria
                              
falaria
falaríamos
falariam
falarei
                              
falará
falaremos
falarão
falando
                          
am speaking
falado
have spoken


  The commonest irregular verbs
dar
                              
to give
 
 
dou
                                  

damos
dão
dei
                              
deu
demos
deram
 
                                  
 
 
 
 
                                  
 
 
 
 
                                  
 
 
 
dando
                          
am giving
dado
have given


dizer
                              
to say / tell
 
 
digo
                                  
diz
dizemos
dizem
disse
                                  
disse
dissemos
disseram
 
                                  
 
 
 
 
                                  
dir__
 
 
 
                                  
dir__
 
 
dizendo
                              
am saying
dito
have said


estar
                              
to be
*4
 
estou
                                  
está
estamos
estão
estive
                                  
esteve
estivemos
estiveram
 
                              
 
 
 
 
                                  
 
 
 
 
                                  
 
 
 
</TABLE></TD> </TR> </TABLE>
estando
                          
am being </I>
estado
have been
fazer
                              
to do / make
 
 
faço
                                  
faz
fazemos
fazem
fiz
                                  
fez
fizemos
fizeram
 
                                  
 
 
 
 
                                  
far__
 
 
 
                                  
far__
 
 
fazendo
                          
am making
feito
have made


ir
                              
to go
 
 
vou
                                  
vai
vamos
vão
fui
                                  
foi
fomos
foram
 
                                  
 
 
 
 
                                  
 
 
 
 
                                  
 
 
 
indo
                          
am going
ido
have gone
poder
                              
can / be able to
*5
 
posso
                                  
pode
podemos
podem
pude
                                  
pôde
pudemos
puderam
 
                                  
 
 
 
 
                                  
 
 
 
 
                                  
 
 
 
podendo
                          
am being able
podido
have been able


pôr
                              
to put
*6
 
ponho
                                  
põe
pomos
põem
pus
                                  
pôs
pusemos
puseram
punha
                                  
punha
púnhamos
punham
 
                                  
 
 
 
 
                                  
 
 
 
pondo
                              
am putting
posto
have put


querer
                              
to want
 
 
quero
                              
quer
queremos
querem
quis
                                  
quis
quisemos
quiseram
 
                                  
 
 
 
 
                                  
 
 
 
 
                                  
 
 
 
querendo
                          
am wanting
querido
have wanted


saber
                              
to know
 
 
sei
                                  
sabe
sabemos
sabem
soube
                                  
soube
soubemos
souberam
 
                              
 
 
 
 
                                  
 
 
 
 
                                  
 
 
 
sabendo
                          
am knowing
sabido
have known


ser
                           
to be
 
 
sou
                                  
é
somos
são
fui
                                  
foi
fomos
foram
era
                                  
era
éramos
eram
 
                                  
 
 
 
 
                                  
 
 
 
sendo
                          
am being
sido
have been


ter
                              
to have
similar: manter
similar: deter
tenho
                                  
tem
temos
têm
tive
                                  
teve
tivemos
tiveram
tinha
                                  
tinha
tínhamos
tinham
 
                                  
 
 
 
 
                                  
 
 
 
tendo
                          
am having
tido
have had


trazer
                              
to bring
 
 
trago
                                  
traz
trazemos
trazem
trouxe
                                  
trouxe
trouxemos
trouxeram
 
                                  
 
 
 
 
                                  
trar__
 
 
 
                                  
trar__
 
 
trazendo
                          
am bringing
trazido
have brought


ver
                              
to see
 
 
vejo
                                  

vemos
vêem
vi
                              
viu
vimos
viram
 
                                  
 
 
 
 
                                  
 
 
 
 
                                  
 
 
 
vendo
                          
am seeing
visto
have seen


vir
                              
to come
 
 
venho
                                  
vem
vimos
vêm
vim
                                  
veio
viemos
vieram
vinha
                                  
vinha
vínhamos
vinham
 
                                  
 
 
 
 
                                  
 
 
 
vindo
                          
am coming
vindo
have come


       
*7
 

falar
to speak
 
 
pronouns
eu
você, ele, ela
nós
vocês, eles, elas
       
Present
Subjunctive

from: eu falo </I>
drop the o
result: eu fale
 
ar er ir
e a
e a
emos amos
em am
       
Imperfect
Subjunctive

eles falaram
drop the ram
eu falasse
 
ar er ir
sse
sse
[áêí]ssemos
ssem
       
Future
Subjunctive

eles falaram
drop the am
eu falar
 
ar er ir
 
 
mos
em
       
 
 

 
 
 
 
     
 
 
 
 
       
 
 

 
 
 
 
     
 
 
 
 
       
 
 

 
 
 
 
     
 
 
 
 


       
 
Present
                              
Subjunctive
Irregular
 
       
dar
                                  

dêmos
dêem
       
estar
esteja
                                  
esteja
estejamos
estejam
       
ir
                                  

vamos
vão
       
querer
queira
                                  
queira
queiramos
queiram
       
saber
saiba
                                  
saiba
saibamos
saibam
       
ser
seja
                                  
seja
sejamos
sejam



</TR> </TR> </TR> </TR> </TR> </TR>
  Common ways to combine
                                                 verbs in Portuguese
estar
                              
+ verb
eu estou falando I am speaking also but less precisely as
                                                 eu falo
eu estou a falar I am speaking mostly used in Portugal;
                                                 uncommon in Brazil
eu estava falando I was speaking also but less precisely as
                                                 eu falava
ir
                              
+ verb
eu vou falar I will speak creates future tense;
                                                 identical to eu falarei
eu fui falar I went to speak just a normal combo;
                                                 does not create a new tense
ir
                              
used alone
eu irei ao Brasil I will go to Brazil formal future tense
eu vou ao Brasil I (go / will go) to Brazil tense inferred from context
eu vou todo ano I go every year present tense inferred
eu vou no proximo ano I will go next year future tense inferred
eu vou ir ao Brasil I will go to Brazil bad grammar but
                                                 often heard
dever/poder
                              
+ verb
eu devo falar I must speak *8, *9
eu deveria falar I should speak  
eu posso falar I can speak; I may speak *10
eu poderia falar I would speak  
gostar
                              
+ verb
eu gosto de falar I like to speak use de between gostar and the verb
eu gostaria de falar I would like to speak  
precisar
                              
+ verb
eu preciso falar I need to speak informal
eu precisaria falar I would need to speak more formal
ter
                              
+ verb
eu tenho que falar I have to speak que pronounced "key"
eu teria que falar I would have to speak  


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  • How to use the chart
    • The chart shows the conjugation for regular verbs in the 5 most common tenses, the 3 subjunctive tenses (which are more advanced tenses), the conjugations for the 14 most common irregular verbs, and common ways of combining verbs.
    • The rules for formation of verb endings in this chart give the correct result in all cases, but be aware that the rules are usually taught in a more complicated way in books and language classes.
    • The tu and vós cases are not shown since they are almost never used in Brazil.
    • An empty box means that the verb is regular in that tense. This is not an oversight. They are deliberately empty because it is not something that you need to memorize. If you learn the template case, you can deduce what should be in the box.
    • A regular conjugation is shown (in italics) when it is part of a list of irregular conjugations because it makes it easier to memorize the list; eg., damos is regular though the rest of the verb is irregular.
    • "dir__" means each conjugation begins with dir rather than the infinitive dizer; likewise for "far__" and "trar__".
    • The conditional follows the same pattern as the er/ir endings in the imperfect, but the ending is attached to the infinitive instead of to the stem.
    • The present participle is used with estar. The past participle is used with ter.
    • Conjugations that are identical (and therefore ambiguous unless you have some context):
      • The eu vs. the você/ele/ela case in imperfect.
      • The eu vs. the você/ele/ela case in conditional.
      • The nós case in present vs. past.
      • All cases of ir vs. ser in past tense.
      • The nós vimos in ver vs. vir.
  • Footnotes
    • *1: Non-conditional usage of "would", like "I would speak every day" or "I would speak often with my friends".
    • *2: Conditional usage of "would", like "I would speak if I could".
    • *3: It is more common (and easier!) to use ir+verb to do the future tense. See the the example in Common ways to combine verbs in Portuguese.
    • *4: Regarding estar:
      • estive, etc. (past) are rarely used
      • estando (present participle) is rarely used
      • estava, etc. (imperfect) are very common and regular
      • estou, está, estão, estava, estavam, & estado often shortened to tou, tá, tão, tava, tavam, & tado
    • *5: Regarding poder:
      • poder and conseguir are often confused
      • poder is combined with another verb to mean "can / to be able to"
      • conseguir is used similarly but has subtle distinctions
      • Used by itself, conseguir means "to get / to obtain / to succeed in"
    • *6: Regarding pôr:
      • punha, etc. (imperfect) are rarely used
      • The following have the same irregular conjugation as pôr: compor, impor, supor, propor, dispor, expor
      • pôr and colocar both mean "to put" but colocar is more common
      • pôr and compor follow the same rules as the -er/ir verbs for the conditional, the future, and the three subjunctive tenses with the following exception: In imperfect subjunctive, it is not pusêssemos but rather puséssemos, and likewise compuséssemos, etc.
    • *7: Commands, like Pare o carro! (Stop the car!), normally use present subjunctive. Confusingly, there is also something known as the imperative tense in Portuguese, but it has a different purpose. That imperative tense is not shown since it is used only with the tu and vós cases which are almost never used in Brazil.
    • *8: Auxiliary verbs like must/should/can/may/would are tricky. The Portuguese usage does not match up perfectly with the English. As in English they are sometimes used interchangeably (Can I have a coffee? May I have a coffee?) and it makes no difference, and sometimes it makes a big difference (He can climb Mount Everest. vs. He may climb Mount Everest.) The following simple rule gives a starting point, it's easy to remember, and works pretty well in most cases:
      • dever in present tense = must
      • dever in past tense = should
      • poder in present tense = can, may
      • poder in past tense = would
    • *9: dever by itself is "to owe"; eg., eu devo by itself is "I owe" (not "I must").
    • *10: Eu posso falar can be used in the sense of "I can/may speak to him about the job", but not for "I can speak Portuguese". For that, use: Eu sei português (I know Portuguese)

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